IBO 03 Solved Assignment INDIA’S FOREIGN TRADE
IBO 03 INDIA’S FOREIGN TRADE
July 2020 and January 2021
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Title – IBO 03 INDIA’S FOREIGN TRADE
University – Ignou
Assignment Types – PDF, SOFT COPY /Handwritten on order
Course – Master of Commerce
(M.Com) 1st Year
Medium / Language –ENGLISH / HINDI
Session – JULY 2020, JANUARY 2021
Subjects code – IBO 03
Assignment Submission Date – July 2020 session के लिए – 31 March 2021, January 2021 session के लिए – 30 September 2021.
Master of Commerce (M.Com) 1st Year
IBO 03 Solved Assignment 2020-21
Q. 2. Discuss various export promotion measures adopted by the Government of India.
Ans. Strategies to Boost Agricultural Exports: To bring to fruition the full export potential of agricultural sector, we must strengthen the infrastructure and storage facilities required. Government needs to embark upon
several key measures to exploit the tremendous export possibilities fully. Apart from development of basic infrastructure,
creation of conducive export-import procedures should be the first step in this direction.
India has one of the longest coastal lines in the world. However, Indian ports can hardly be called world-class. They need to be at least comparable with ports of Singapore and Hong Kong. Goods should be not only handled
efficiently and effectively, but also at very comparative rates. Indian ports have to be capable of dealing with larger tonnage than what is being handled presently. It is indeed a sorry state of affairs that daily loading at the Indian ports hangs around 2,500 to 3,500 tonnes, which is barely 10 per cent of what ports of developed Asian countries handle.
The reasons are obvious. There is lack of proper loading facilities. There is very little modern warehousing capacity near ports. The shortage of railway wagons is adversely affecting competitiveness of India’s exports.
IBO 03 Solved Assignment in Hindi 2021
For example, rice and de-oiled cake exporters often do not get railway wagons to despatch their goods to the ports. In case of fruits
and vegetables, lack of cold storage capacity is badly affecting their exports. The Cold Storage Act, instead of helping exports, is proving to be a deterrent to the holding of stocks. Fruits and vegetables of about Rs. 5,000 crore are wasted
every year due to paucity of storage and transportation facilities.
Urgently Needed Measures
Following are the measures absolutely necessary to boost agricultural exports:
1. At present only those farm products can be exported in which the country has a surplus. This policy needs to be discarded immediately.
2. Doing away with barriers on quantities to be exported on some products e.g. cereals.
3. Trade policy for the agriculture sector needs to be completely open, free and outward looking. The farmer should have total freedom to handle sale of his produce without any government restrictions on quantity, price, etc.
For example, the Textile Commissioner controls cotton exports by allotting quotas to designated agencies. Exports can be done by these agencies only and not by farmers directly.
4. Private sector investment in infrastructure needs to be encouraged by offering attractive incentives. This is vital for boosting agro-exports. It is a fact that export of fruits and vegetables can be increased many times if
refrigeration and storage facilities are available at all points of storage. Cold stores need to be built at the farm level, during transportation and also at the airports.
5. Doing away with all export controls and regulations like canalisation.
6. Post-harvest technology needs to be improved to ensure preservation and utilization of the produce both for
domestic consumption and export purposes. For example, a lot of wastage of fruits and vegetables, if stopped, would mean greater availability for home consumption and exports.
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7. To promote farm production and agro-based industries, the farm sector should be given status of industry with facilities like easy and cheap credit, specialised funding institutions, storage amenities and marketing services.
8. Agriculture sector should be freed from payment of taxes including capital gains tax.
9. Proper use of farmland is to be ensured while considering ecological issues. In the semi-arid regions, agricultural expansion in areas not suited for cultivation should be banned to steer clear of environmental problems.
10. Foreign capital and technology should be encouraged, but only in the areas where it is genuinely required.
M.com Solved Assignment
11. Eastern states are lagging in production of various agricultural commodities. Special focus needs to be there on improving their performance.
12. Productivity of various crops has to be improved as lands are going to be more and more scarcer in future. India has a very low agricultural productivity at around 1.6 tonnes average yield per hectare. This is much lower than even developing countries like China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mexico and Brazil. A high agricultural growth rate requires average yield of at least 2.5 tonnes or more per hectare.
13. Agricultural growth ought to be taken to over 3.5 per cent to 6 per cent in output terms. The aim is to double the farm production within the next 15 years. This means an average annual growth rate of 4.7 per cent.
14. Investments in agriculture have to be speeded up considerably as a percentage of the total expenditure in five-year plans on a continuous basis.
IBO 03 Solved Assignment 2021 Pdf
15. It is imperative that to dependence of our agriculture on monsoon should be reduced drastically. The only way to do this is to improve irrigation systems in the country. The irrigation network must be strengthened and
expanded so as cover entire country and even remotest corners. Minor irrigation has to be promoted very far and.wide. Ground water is the principal source of irrigation to be popularised through incentive mechanism.
16. State governments should amend their respective Agricultural Land Ceiling Acts to remove all anomalies in them.
17. Consolidation of land-holdings should be done with more enthusiasm. More than 60 per cent of land holdings in the country are still unconsolidated.
IBO 03 INDIA’S FOREIGN TRADE Solved Assignment
18. Fertilizer consumption has to be more for increased production, which can satisfy rising domestic requirements.and exports. Profitability of farming operations could be improved only through higher productivity. There should be more use of bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides, organic manures and micro-nutrients and these ought to be promoted
19. The Plant Varieties Protection Bill is ultimately in the interests of farmers. Production of high-value seeds involves the process of hand pollination, which is highly labour-intensive, and India stands to gain by implementing it.
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