MEG 04 Solved Assignment 2020
MEG-04 Aspects of Language
July 2019 and January 2020
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Title – MEG-04 Aspects of Language
University – Ignou
Assignment Types – PDF, SOFT COPY /Handwritten on order
Course – Master in English (meg)
Medium / Language –ENGLISH MEDIUM
Session – JULY 2019, JANUARY 2020
Subjects code – MEG 04
Assignment Submission Date – July 2019 session के लिए – 30 June 2020, January 2020 session के लिए – 30 September 2020.
MEG 04 Solved Assignment 2019 – 2020
Q. 5. Historically discuss the rise of American English and its chief characteristics.
Ans. American English: History of English in American can be said to have started in seventeenth century who settled along the Atlantic seaboard. The making of American population as we know today can be distinguish as three period of European immigration.
First period can be said to have began in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown and lasted in 1787, with Congress approval of Federal Constitution. The second period was close to that of Civil War. In this period people from Ireland and Germany immigrated. The third period saw the immigration from southern Europe and the Slaving countries. This period started after Civil War. In spite of different immigrants from, different sources the dialects of
American English does not show much variation. There could be various different reasons different reasons uniformity
like tendency to stay together in the foreign land. The religious uniformity that characterised all early settlements, an
attitude to preserve one’s own language and culture, the tendency of mobility among Americans. One of the most
striking characteristic of American English is to preserve the old features and characteristics of language which has
long been disapproved. The common example could be the preservation of ‘r’ and the flat ‘a’ in ‘fast’ and ‘path’. The pronunciation of ‘either’ and ‘neither’ in American English follow the vowel sound of ‘teeth’ which was replaced in
England by disputing /ai/. Apart from certain preservation of sounds some semantic features were also retained. For
example, the word ‘mad’ is still used in sense of angry. The American use of ‘I guess’ comes from the time of Chaucer. It seems important features of transplanted languages that they tend to preserve certain characteristics of old form. There is not a slightest of doubt that American English has attempted and succeeded in preserving old forms and variety of English which were long lost in England because of emergence of standard form, but apart from this American English has some innovations which are of equal importance.
Usually in a colonial language when people find difficulties in terms of limited vocabularies, two methods are put in to action to overcome such problems. First is to borrow word from a language which already has ready made words and the second method involves the coining of new word which leads to the development of one’s vocabulary. In American English we find both of these processes in action. When colonial settler from England first came in to America, they had to deal entirely new topography, thus resulted in the coining of words like ‘gap’, ‘divid’, ‘watershed’ etc. Though, these words were English in origin but when placed in to a different world like that of American, these
words changes their semantic value. English contact with Red Indian or American Indian resulted in the influx of
many Indian words pertaining to their way of life: ‘tomahawk’, ‘canoe’, ‘toboggan’, etc. The new form of Government formed in American which was different from the monarchical system of England also gave way to the words like ‘congressional’, ‘presidential’, ‘gubernatorial’, ‘congressman’ etc. American’s contacts with French colonies injected new words in American English like ‘portage’, ‘chowder’, cache’, ‘burcau’ etc. Some word borrowed from Dutch are ‘cookie’, ‘stoop’ etc., and from German, ‘noodle’, ‘smearcase’ etc.
A sudden resurgent national consciousness was created among the Americans due to the American Revolution and Rectification of Bill Right. There was the need of distinguish American civilisation and language from that of European. American wanted the world to consider American civilisation and culture as a distinct one and not as an extension of European civilisation. In this context came Webster’s dictionary which held an important in American English independence, because it was the first attempt to codify the first attempt codify the differences between American and British English.
MEG 04 Solved Assignment 2019 – 2020
In 1821, American Academy of Languages and Belles letter has established for the relation of American English. The primary motive of Academy was the formulation of American Standard English by pursuing ‘Americaness’ of the language. Many people protested against this concept as it would have given a way to the language for the elite group. As a result the idea and interest in such academy subsided. In 1828 appeared American Dictionary which has
its important role in development of American English. This dictionary introduces various changes like omission of
‘u’ from words like ‘color’ and ‘honour’ which are written in British English as ‘colour’ and ‘honour’. And also elimination of consonants sounds like ‘l’ and ‘g’ in the words like ‘traveler’ (traveller in British English) and ‘wagon’ (wagon in British English).
At the level of pronunciation there were many changes made like the introduction of flat ‘a’ in the word like ‘fast’, ‘path’, ‘dance’, etc. is still very popular and common. The pronunciation of ‘o’ sound in the word like ‘not’, lot’ etc. changed to ‘a’ sound in ‘father’ but only shorter. Pronunciation of word like ‘secretary’ and ‘necessary’ were changed as Americans pronounces these words with a secondary stress on one of the unaccented syllable in the words.
Despite of the large variation in the language spoken it was the mid west variety of the language that was promoted as the Standard American English. English was not imposed on immigrants from different nations but gradually English become language of prestige and those immigrants had to learn it in order to maintain the social status. Despite the popularity and the prestige attached with Standard English, several local dialects are still preserved.
The development of English in Canada and Australia was more or less like other colonial settlements. The development of the Canadian English was the result of growth and influence of American English. In understanding of Canadian English it is important for us to consider the fact that Canada was the colony of French and English at the same time. Therefore the use of French word in Canadian English is common. In Canada both French and
English were emphasised equally and therefore, most of the Canadian speakers are bilingual and the use of language
involves very frequent code-mixing. However, as far as Canadian English is concerned, it follows the root and trend
of American English.
MEG 04 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2020 PDF
The beginning of Canadian English started with the immigrant from America after American Revolution of Independence. These immigrants were those who supported British at the time of revolution. In Canada they settled in the part which is now called Ontario. These immigrants though were late arrival but played a dominant role in making modern Canada. Their language was further developed in to what is called General Canadian. This suggests Canadian English to be a variety of North American English. Canadian English uses words from both American and
British English. Though it is remarkable that despite of heavy influence of American English Canadians has preserved their local and regional variation of language. Canadian English do not use any special grammar.
Canadian English do not use any special form of grammar. They use books of British and American English. The most striking distinctiveness of Canadian English is its pronunciation, for example, use of vowel and the diphtheria ‘ou’. Canadian diphthong ‘ou’ rhymes with the word ‘boat’. Canadians also merge the two vowels in words like ‘cot’ and ‘caught’.
The nineteenth century saw a remarkable development of American English and its culture. In the storm of these developments Canadian English was left far behind. The only reason behind this was that the language spoken in Canada owes its essence to those immigrants who came into Canada after American revolution called ‘Loyalists’ by British and ‘Tories’ by Americans. Like every other aspects of Canadian culture this has been torn apart between push and pull of Americans and British.