MRDE 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21

MRDE 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21



Solved Assignment

July 2020 and January 2021 

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University – Ignou

Assignment Types – PDF, SOFT COPY /Handwritten on order

Course – Master of Arts (Rural Development) (MARD) 2nd Year

Medium / Language –ENGLISH / HINDI

Session – JULY 2020, JANUARY 2021

Subjects code – MRDE 02

Assignment Submission Date – July 2020 session के लिए – 31 March 2021, January 2021 session के लिए – 30 September 2021.

(MARD) Master of Arts (Rural Development)

MRDE 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21


Q. 3. Discuss the basic characteristics of Community Based Organisations (CBOs).
Ans. Basic Characteristics of CBOs: Community Based Organisations (CBOs) are based in local communities, voluntary in nature and lack rigid formal structure.The community membersare the stakeholders in the development project. They take the ownership of assets created through the development programme. In this section, we will describe
the essential characteristics of CBOs.

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Formation of CBOs: Community Based Organisations (CBOs) are generally small and informal organisations. Based in the local communities, they run development programmes, sometimes through intermediary NGOs. They need information and training for successful implementation of the project. The CBO members need to be motivated to spend
time for the project. They generally get the support from the state government and development agency or a VO. A CBO is started with a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) with reference to a particular development project. The objectives may be needs and demands of the community may be met. The CBO members discuss the issues and their plans at the gram sabha meeting. Considerable time is required for motivating and mobilising the people for the sustainability of development.

The formation of a CBO depends on the motivating effort of a development agency. The CBO develops its rules and regulations and procedures for undertaking various activities, including organising meetings and appointing
office bearers. The CBO is registered as a cooperative, or a society, or trust. It also requires a constitution. This also requires interacting with bureaucracy for obtaining the required set of documents. The CBO signs agreement with the Ministry or the Development Agency on the development project.

The CBO receives technical and managerial training from external agents. The training may include classroom training or hands-on practical training. Technical training may be about the quality of materials, finished structures and measurements.

Some Basic Features of CBOs
The following are some of the important features of CBOs:

(i) Membership-Based: The members of a CBO may include all the residents, if the development programme has to do with all the villagers. For example, in case of a drinking water scheme, all the households will be covered by the scheme and the all the residents will be the CBO members. A CBO also may not include all the residents of a village. For
example, in the case of an irrigation project, the CBO will include only the farmers affected.

(ii) Motivation from an outside Agency: CBO may be promoted by a PIA or by other development agencies. The objective is to implement the participatory development programmes and projects.

(iii) Representation of Marginalised Groups: A CBO includes all groups including women and other disadvantaged sections are included in the CBO. The executive committee of the CBO thus includes the representatives of the people.
The venue and timing of meeting of CBOs are considered in such a way that all groups take part in the meeting.

(iv) Interactive Participation: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach is adopted to get the views of the community with regard to the project. The participants assesstheir situation and needs while devising solutions to problems.

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(v) Reliance on Indigenous Knowledge: CBOs depend on local knowledge and indigenous expertise to understand and define problems and find solutions. Their dependence on external agents is minimised for sustainable development.

(vi) Community Contribution: The contribution may be in cash, kind and labour. For example, in a watershed development project, farmers may contribute 10 per cent of the total cost. Or a tube wellowner may provide water free
of charge for constructing a water harvesting structure, which will be in kind. Farmers may contribute their labour in building the structure. Such contribution inculcates a sense ofownership among the community members.

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Strengths and Limitations of CBOs
The programmes planned, implemented and maintained by CBOs should be more efficient and more equitable in terms of distribution of benefits. They should have greater sustainability. They also empower communities and strengthen democracy. Projects in Africa, Latin America and Asia have been evaluated to decide whether these objectives are realised. On the basis of the following criteria, the strengthand effectiveness of a CBO can be evaluated:

* Project’s sustainability.

* Community’s capacity building for collective action.
* Empowerment of disadvantaged and marginalised people.
* Improvement in public delivery system.
* Nature of accountability and transparency.
* Method adopted for selecting the target community.

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CBO-approach also has some limitations. Lower castes and other marginalised people may be altogether left outin the decision-making process. This may happen because participation is a time-consuming process and better-off people in thevillage have greater time at their disposal. Women andlower caste groups may find it difficult to overcome inhibition and they may not attend the meetings. If they attend the meeting, they may not speak up. If they do speak up, they may
not be heard and their concerns may not be considered in the decision- making.

Since every village has an elected panchayat, existence of a CBO may be a source of conflict. The success of a CBO also depends on the village leadership and social cohesion in the village. Scaling up of community based development programmes is still a major challenge in rural development process.

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