MSW 08 Solved Assignment 2020
Social Group Work: Working with Groups
MSW 8 Social Group Work : Working With Groups Solved Assignment
July 2019 and January 2020
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Title – MSW 8 Social Group Work : Working With Groups Solved Assignment
University – Ignou
Assignment Types – PDF, SOFT COPY /Handwritten on order
Course – Master in Social Work (msw)
Medium / Language –ENGLISH MEDIUM
Session – JULY 2019, JANUARY 2020
Subjects code – MSW 8
Assignment Submission Date – July 2019 session के लिए – 30 June 2020, January 2020 session के लिए – 15 DECEMBER 2020.
Q. 1. Describe various models in Social Group Work.
Ans. Models of Social Group Work: With the advancement in technology, the group workers stated gradually involving in the treatment and considered it as a primary goal. The group workers practiced in the related field which led to the development of a wide variety of theoretical models for practicing the group work. With the help of models, a group worker is able to focus on the problems in a holistic manner. The type of model to be implemented is dependent upon the group goals or objectives or. purposes There are many classical or contemporary models which are found in practicing the field. The three models pioneered by Papell and Rothman (1966) are the social goals model, the remedial model and the reciprocal model which are the core of the social work tradition.
Social Goals Model: The focus of the model is self-consciousness and social responsibility. In this model the concern is to further social justice often through collective, social action and bring about a change in the oppressed population. Cohen and Mullender (1999) said that the social goals model referred to recent literature as social action group work. The fundamental to this model is democratic group process. The principles guiding practice involving the social goals model includes:
* Clarification of agency policy, *Positive use of limitations, *Identification with agency goals,
*Determination of appropriate issues for collective action, and
*Weighing of alternatives for action and their consequences.
Remedial Model: In this model the aim on the part of the work/agency is individual social adaption. The function of the model is the treatment of the individuals which is clinically-oriented. The focus of the model is on those who have problems of adjustment in personal and social relations. This model is used while dealing with a group of persons with emotional problem or teaching skills of daily living to a group of mentally handicapped children. A worker uses the model and exercises considerable authority, instructs model behaviour for group members and creates an atmosphere which helps in the motivation of an individual. This model is useful in mental health centres, correctional institutes, family service organizations, counselling services, schools,health care facilities and in many other agencies.
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Reciprocal Model: The model aims to strengthen mutual aid and to mediate between individuals and society. It has been derive from the systems theory, field theory, social psychological theories of behaviour and the practice principles that are part of the generic methodology for social work. The model serves both the individual and the society and focuses on the major concerns of both the social goals model and remedial model. The thrust of the model is to establish mutual aid system and worker or members do not keep any preconceived goals (Papell and Rothman, 1966). The worker acts as a mediator or an
enabler who is viewed as a part of the worker-client system.
There are many other models of Small Group Development which have been discussed below:
Kurt Lewin’s Model: The most notable of Lewin’s contributions was his development of Group Communication and Group Dynamics as major facets of the communication discipline. In a 1947 article, Lewin coined the term ‘Group Dynamics’. He described this notion as the way that groups and individuals act and react to changing circumstances. This field emerged as a concept dedicated to the advancement of knowledge regarding the nature of groups, their laws, establishment, development, and interactions with other groups, individuals and institutions.This notion—that a group is composed of more than the sum of its individual members—quickly gained support from sociologists and psychologists who understood the significance of this emerging field. Many pioneers noted that the majority of group phenomena could be explained according to Lewin’s equation
and insight and opposing views were hushed. The study of group dynamics remains relevant in today’s society where a vast number of professions (e.g., business and industry, clinical/counselling psychology, sports and recreation) rely on its mechanisms
In the change process, Kurt Lewin’s model has three stages such as unfreezing, change and freezing in which the first stage makes an effort to remove lethargy and sluggishness and dismantles the existing mind set and the second stage is the transition phase that brings the change and the last stage sets the mind and crystallizes it and the individual becomes stable.
Tubb’s Model: Stewart Tubbs “systems” approach to studying small group interaction led him to the creation of a fourphase model of group development:
Orientation: In this stage, group members get to know each other, they start to talk about the problem and they examine the limitations and opportunities of the project.
Conflict: Conflict is a necessary part of a group’s development. Conflict allows the group to evaluate ideas and it
helps the group conformity and group think
Consensus: Conflict ends in the consensus stage, when group members compromise, select ideas and agree on alternatives.
Closure: In this stage, the final result is announced and group members reaffirm their support of the decision.
Fisher’s Model: Fisher outlines four phases through which task groups tend to proceed when engaged in decision-making.
By observing the distribution of act-response pairs (a.k.a. “interacts”) across different moments of the group process, Fisher
noted how the interaction changed as the group decision was formulated and solidified. His method pays special attention to the
“content” dimension of interactions by classifying statements in terms of how they respond to a decision proposal (e.g., agreement, disagreement, etc.).
Orientation: During the orientation phase, group members get to know each other and they experience a primary
tension: the awkward feeling people have before communication rules and expectations are established. Groups should take time to learn about each other and feel comfortable communicating around new people.
Conflict: The conflict phase is marked by secondary tension or tension surrounding the task at hand. Group members will disagree with each other and debate ideas. Here, conflict is viewed as positive, because it helps the group achieve positive results.
Emergence: In the emergence phase, the outcome of the group’s task and its social structure become apparent. Group
members soften their positions and undergo an attitudinal change that makes them less tenacious in defending their individual view-point.
Reinforcement: In this stage, group members bolster their final decision by using supportive verbal and nonverbal communication.
Tuckman’s Model” Bruce Tuckman comes with the new model of group development. This model is initally started with four stages and later on added one more stage. Its stages include forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Poole’s Model: Marshall Scott Poole’s model suggests that different groups employ different sequences in making decisions.
In contrast to unitary sequence models, the multiple sequences model addresses decision-making as a function of several
contingency variables: task structure, group composition and conflict management strategies. Poole suggests three activity
tracks: task progress, relational and topical focus. Interspersed with these are break points, marking changes in the development
of strands and links between them. Normal break points pace the discussion with topic shifts and adjournments. Delays, another
breakpoint, are holding patterns of recycling through information. Finally, disruptions break the discussion threads with conflict
or task failure.
Gersick’s Model: Gersick’s study of naturally occurring groups departs from the traditionally linear models of group
development. Her punctuated equilibrium model suggests that groups develop through the sudden formation, maintenance, and
sudden revision of a “framework for performance”. This model describes the processes through which such frameworks are
formed and revised and predicts both the timing of progress and when and how in their development groups are likely, or unlikely, to be influenced by their environments. The specific issues and activities that dominate groups’ work are left unspecified in the model, since groups’ historical paths are expected to vary. Her proposed model works in the following way:
Phase 1: According to the model, a framework of behavioural patterns and assumptions through which a group approaches its project emerges in its first meeting and the group stays with that framework through the first half of its. life Teams may show little visible progress during this time because members may be unable to perceive a use for the
information they are generating until they revise the initial framework.
Mid-point: At their calendar midpoints, groups experience transitions-paradigmatic shifts in their approaches to their
work-enabling them to capitalize on the gradual learning they have done and make significant advances. The transition
is a powerful opportunity for a group to alter the course of its life midstream. But the transition must be used well, for
once it is past a team is unlikely to alter its basic plans again.
Phase 2: A second period of inertial movement, takes its direction from plans crystallized during the transition. At
completion, when a team makes a final effort to satisfy outside expectations, it experiences the positive and negative
consequences of past choices.
Wheelan’s Model: Building on Tuckman’s model and based on her own empirical research as well as the foundational
work of Wilfred Bion, Susan Wheelan proposed a “unified” or “integrated” model of group development. This model, although
linear in a sense, takes the perspective that groups achieve maturity as they continue to work together rather than simply go
through stages of activity. In this model “early” stages of group development are associated with specific issues and patterns of
talk such as those related to dependency, counter-dependency and trust which precede the actual work conducted during the
“more mature” stages of a group’s life.
Team Model: The team model identities a total of nine stages, seven central ones supplemented by two additional ones.
The seven central stages begin with the formation of the team during its first meeting (forming) and moves through the members’
initial and sometimes unstable, exploration of the situation (storming), initial efforts toward accommodation and the formation
and acceptance of roles (norming), performance leading toward occasional inefficient patterns of performance (performing-II), reevaluation and transition (reforming), refocusing of efforts to produce effective performance (performing-II), and completion of team assignments (conforming).
Intake Models: In this model the focus is given on contact initiation or individual assessment or orientation about agency function. The primary concern is the intake process when an individual first engages with an agency and not with specific interventions such as provision of support, achievement of change or the amelioration of a specific situation.
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Guided Group Interaction Models: Lloyd McCorkle developed the guided group interaction model in the late 1940s in
the treatment of the military offenders. The focus of the model is positive peer culture in which individuals normally learn the
deviant behaviour, attitudes and values from the peer group. The model is used in the reverse sense and carefully constitutes peer group as a vehicle for changing the behaviour from the anti-social to the law-abiding. The key principle is to mix theo offenderswith the ex-offenders and others in the residential or day care setting with programmes that have positive peer culture.
Problem-Solving Task-centered and Social Skills Model: These models help in solving the specific behavioural problems, achieving specific tasks or developing the specific behavioural skills. Every model makes use of the blend of individual, pairs and group methods and emphasizes on co-operation rather than on competition, safe and structured environment and building
self-esteem and using the positive reinforcement practice.
MSW 08 Solved Assignment 2020
Psychotherapeutic, Person-Focused Models: The models are concerned with the person, his feelings, emotions and relationships and strengthens the mental health and self-concept of an individual. The therapists interprets the behaviour of the client, the content of discussion, looking for patterns that reveals the conflicts in an individual in psychotherapeutic model.Some examples in this category includes Gestalt therapy and Psychodrama. Gestalt therapy is an existential and experimental
psychotherapy that focuses on here-and-now approach and enables an individual to get in touch with the immediate problematic
experience and emotion and work through the conflict. Psychodrama is used to express the problems, issues, concerns, dreams
and highest aspirations of person through spontaneous and dramatic role play. The touch stone of the model is the experience in
action rather than in words. The integrative approach is transactional analysis as it has the elements of psychoanalytic, humanist
and cognitive approaches and emphasizes a pragmatic path in treating the patients or develops models to assist the understanding
of why certain treatment works.
Mutual Aid or Self-Help Models: The Mutual Aid Model of group work practice (Gitterman, 2004) has its roots in the practice theory proposed by William Schwartz (1961) which was introduced in the article, “The Social Worker in the Group”. Schwartz (1961) envisioned the group as an “The enterprise in mutual aid, an alliance of individuals who need each other in varying degrees, to work on certain common problems”.
NEEDS-ABC Model: The emphasis of this model developed by Tom Caplan is the relational needs behind the maladaptive
behaviours, rather then the behaviour themselves. Here, ABC refers to the acquisition and behaviour change which is applicable
to wide public within the field of psychotherapeutic care of clients engaged in group, couple and marriage therapy. The model combines observation, elucidation of client and group process and use the concepts to describe the cognitive-behavioural,
motivational, narrative and emotion focused model.
Neuro-Linguistic Model: The aim of this model is goal-oriented work with a person paying particular regard to his representation systems, metaphors and relation matrices. It also helps to position the selectively good intentions underlying the
symptoms of illness and of dysfunction. This is done so that the unproductive behaviour and beliefs can be dissociated and sound behaviour and beliefs can be established and integrated. This approach is also used in other fields like education, counseling, supervision, coaching, management training and health psychology.